# 8. Processing multidimensional data#

The open-access textbookMinimalist Data Wrangling with Pythonby Marek Gagolewski is, and will remain, freely available for everyone’s enjoyment (also in PDF; a printed version can be ordered from Amazon: AU CA DE ES FR IT JP NL PL SE UK US). It is a non-profit project. Although available online, it is a whole course, and should be read from the beginning to the end. Refer to the Preface for general introductory remarks. Any bug/typo reports/fixes are appreciated. Make sure to check out the author’s other book,Deep R Programming[34].

## 8.1. From vectors to matrices#

Let us study how the vector operations that we discussed in, amongst others,
Chapter 5 can be extended to matrices.
In many cases, we will end up applying the same transform either
on every matrix element separately, or on each row or column.
They are all brilliant examples of the *write less, do more* principle
in practice.

### 8.1.1. Vectorised mathematical functions#

Applying vectorised functions such
as **numpy.round**, **numpy.log**, and **numpy.exp**
returns an array of the same shape, with all elements
transformed accordingly.

```
A = np.array([
[0.2, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4],
[0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7],
[0.8, 0.8, 0.2, 0.1]
]) # example matrix that we will be using below
```

For example:

```
np.square(A)
## array([[0.04, 0.36, 0.16, 0.16],
## [0. , 0.04, 0.16, 0.49],
## [0.64, 0.64, 0.04, 0.01]])
```

takes the square of every element.

More generally, we will be denoting such operations with:

### 8.1.2. Componentwise aggregation#

Unidimensional aggregation functions
(e.g., **numpy.mean**, **numpy.quantile**)
can be applied to summarise:

all data into a single number (

`axis=None`

, being the default),data in each column (

`axis=0`

), as well asdata in each row (

`axis=1`

).

Here are the examples corresponding to the above cases:

```
np.mean(A)
## 0.39999999999999997
np.mean(A, axis=0)
## array([0.33333333, 0.53333333, 0.33333333, 0.4 ])
np.mean(A, axis=1)
## array([0.4 , 0.325, 0.475])
```

Important

Let us repeat, `axis=1`

does not mean
that we get the column means (even though
columns constitute the second axis, and we count starting at 0).
It denotes the axis *along* which the matrix is sliced.
Sadly, even yours truly sometimes does not get it right
on the first attempt.

Given the `nhanes_adult_female_bmx_2020`

dataset, compute the mean, standard deviation, minimum,
and maximum of each body measurement.

We will get back to the topic of the aggregation of multidimensional data in Section 8.4.

### 8.1.3. Arithmetic, logical, and relational operations#

Recall that for vectors, binary operators
such as `**+**`, `*****`, `**==**`,
`**<=**`, and `**&**`
as well as similar elementwise functions (e.g., **numpy.minimum**)
can be applied if both inputs are of the same length.
For example:

```
np.array([1, 10, 100, 1000]) * np.array([7, -6, 2, 8]) # elementwisely
## array([ 7, -60, 200, 8000])
```

Alternatively, one input can be a scalar:

```
np.array([1, 10, 100, 1000]) * -3
## array([ -3, -30, -300, -3000])
```

More generally, a set of rules referred to in the
**numpy** manual as
*broadcasting*
describes how this package handles arrays of different shapes.

Important

Generally, for two matrices, their column/row numbers must match or be equal to 1. Also, if one operand is a one-dimensional array, it will be promoted to a row vector.

Let us explore all the possible scenarios.

#### 8.1.3.1. Matrix vs scalar#

If one operand is a scalar, then it is going to be propagated over all matrix elements. For example:

```
(-1)*A
## array([[-0.2, -0.6, -0.4, -0.4],
## [-0. , -0.2, -0.4, -0.7],
## [-0.8, -0.8, -0.2, -0.1]])
```

It changed the sign of every element, which is, mathematically, an instance of multiplying a matrix \(\mathbf{X}\) by a scalar \(c\):

Furthermore:

```
A**2
## array([[0.04, 0.36, 0.16, 0.16],
## [0. , 0.04, 0.16, 0.49],
## [0.64, 0.64, 0.04, 0.01]])
```

It took the square[1] of each element. Also:

```
A >= 0.25
## array([[False, True, True, True],
## [False, False, True, True],
## [ True, True, False, False]])
```

It compared each element to 0.25.

#### 8.1.3.2. Matrix vs matrix#

For two matrices of identical sizes, we act
on the *corresponding* elements:

```
B = np.tri(A.shape[0], A.shape[1]) # just an example
B # a lower triangular 0-1 matrix
## array([[1., 0., 0., 0.],
## [1., 1., 0., 0.],
## [1., 1., 1., 0.]])
```

And now:

```
A * B
## array([[0.2, 0. , 0. , 0. ],
## [0. , 0.2, 0. , 0. ],
## [0.8, 0.8, 0.2, 0. ]])
```

multiplies each \(a_{i,j}\) by the corresponding \(b_{i,j}\).

This extends on the idea from algebra that given \(\mathbf{A}\), \(\mathbf{B}\) with \(n\) rows and \(m\) columns each, the result of \(+\) (or \(-\)) would be for instance:

Thanks to the matrix-matrix and matrix-scalar operations we can perform various tests on a per-element basis, e.g.,

```
(A >= 0.25) & (A <= 0.75) # logical matrix & logical matrix
## array([[False, True, True, True],
## [False, False, True, True],
## [False, False, False, False]])
```

(*)
Figure 8.1 depicts a (filled) contour plot
of Himmelblau’s function, \(f(x,y)=(x^{2}+y-11)^{2}+(x+y^{2}-7)^{2}\),
for \(x\in[-5, 5]\) and \(y\in[-4, 4]\).
To draw it, we probed 250 points from the two said
ranges and called **numpy.meshgrid** to generate
two matrices, both of shape 250 by 250,
giving the x- and y-coordinates of all the points on
the corresponding two-dimensional grid.
Thanks to this, we were able to use vectorised mathematical operations
to compute the values of \(f\) thereon.

```
x = np.linspace(-5, 5, 250)
y = np.linspace(-4, 4, 250)
xg, yg = np.meshgrid(x, y)
z = (xg**2 + yg - 11)**2 + (xg + yg**2 - 7)**2
plt.contourf(x, y, z, levels=20)
CS = plt.contour(x, y, z, levels=[1, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250])
plt.clabel(CS, colors="black")
plt.show()
```

To understand the result generated by
**numpy.meshgrid**, here is its output for a smaller number
of probe points:

```
x = np.linspace(-5, 5, 3)
y = np.linspace(-4, 4, 5)
xg, yg = np.meshgrid(x, y)
xg
## array([[-5., 0., 5.],
## [-5., 0., 5.],
## [-5., 0., 5.],
## [-5., 0., 5.],
## [-5., 0., 5.]])
```

Here, each column is the same.

```
yg
## array([[-4., -4., -4.],
## [-2., -2., -2.],
## [ 0., 0., 0.],
## [ 2., 2., 2.],
## [ 4., 4., 4.]])
```

In this case, each row is identical. Thanks to this, calling:

```
(xg**2 + yg - 11)**2 + (xg + yg**2 - 7)**2
## array([[116., 306., 296.],
## [208., 178., 148.],
## [340., 170., 200.],
## [320., 90., 260.],
## [340., 130., 520.]])
```

gives a matrix \(\mathbf{Z}\) such that
\(z_{i,j}\) is generated by considering the \(i\)-th element in `y`

and the \(j\)-th item in `x`

, which is exactly what we desired.

#### 8.1.3.3. Matrix vs any vector#

An *n×m* matrix can also be combined with
an *n×1* column vector:

```
A * np.array([1, 10, 100]).reshape(-1, 1)
## array([[ 0.2, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4],
## [ 0. , 2. , 4. , 7. ],
## [80. , 80. , 20. , 10. ]])
```

The above propagated the column vector over all columns (left to right).

Similarly, combining with a *1×m* row vector:

```
A + np.array([1, 2, 3, 4]).reshape(1, -1)
## array([[1.2, 2.6, 3.4, 4.4],
## [1. , 2.2, 3.4, 4.7],
## [1.8, 2.8, 3.2, 4.1]])
```

recycles the row vector over all rows (top to bottom).

If one operand is a one-dimensional array or a list of length \(m\), it will be treated as a row vector. For example:

```
np.round(A - np.mean(A, axis=0), 3) # matrix - vector
## array([[-0.133, 0.067, 0.067, -0. ],
## [-0.333, -0.333, 0.067, 0.3 ],
## [ 0.467, 0.267, -0.133, -0.3 ]])
```

On a side note, this is an instance of *centring* of each column.
An explicit `.reshape(1, -1)`

was not necessary.

Mathematically, although it is not necessarily a standard notation, we will allow adding and subtracting row vectors from matrices of compatible sizes:

This corresponds to shifting (translating) every row in the matrix.

In the `nhanes_adult_female_bmx_2020`

dataset, standardise, normalise, and min-max scale every column
(compare Section 5.3.2).
A single line of code will suffice in each case.

#### 8.1.3.4. Row vector vs column vector (*)#

A row vector combined with a column vector results
in an operation’s being performed on each *combination*
of *all* pairs of elements in the two arrays
(i.e., the cross-product; not just the *corresponding* pairs).

```
np.arange(1, 8).reshape(1, -1) * np.array([1, 10, 100]).reshape(-1, 1)
## array([[ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7],
## [ 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70],
## [100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700]])
```

Check out that
**numpy.nonzero** relies on similar shape broadcasting rules
as the binary operators we discussed here,
but not with respect to all three arguments.

(*) Himmelblau’s function in Figure 8.1 is only defined
by means of arithmetic operators, which all accept the kind of
shape broadcasting that we discuss in this section.
Consequently, calling **numpy.meshgrid** in that example
to evaluate \(f\) on a grid of points was not really necessary:

```
x = np.linspace(-5, 5, 3)
y = np.linspace(-4, 4, 5)
xg = x.reshape(1, -1)
yg = y.reshape(-1, 1)
(xg**2 + yg - 11)**2 + (xg + yg**2 - 7)**2
## array([[116., 306., 296.],
## [208., 178., 148.],
## [340., 170., 200.],
## [320., 90., 260.],
## [340., 130., 520.]])
```

See also the `sparse`

parameter in **numpy.meshgrid**
and Figure 12.9 where this function turns out useful after all.

### 8.1.4. Other row and column transforms (*)#

Some functions that we discussed in the previous part
of this course are equipped with the `axis`

argument, which
supports processing each row or column independently.
For example:

```
np.sort(A, axis=1)
## array([[0.2, 0.4, 0.4, 0.6],
## [0. , 0.2, 0.4, 0.7],
## [0.1, 0.2, 0.8, 0.8]])
```

sorts every row (separately). Moreover:

```
scipy.stats.rankdata(A, axis=0)
## array([[2. , 2. , 2.5, 2. ],
## [1. , 1. , 2.5, 3. ],
## [3. , 3. , 1. , 1. ]])
```

computes the ranks of elements in each column.

Some functions have the default argument
`axis=-1`

, which means that they are applied
along the last (i.e., columns in the matrix case) axis:

```
np.diff(A) # axis=1 here
## array([[ 0.4, -0.2, 0. ],
## [ 0.2, 0.2, 0.3],
## [ 0. , -0.6, -0.1]])
```

Still, the aforementioned **numpy.mean** is
amongst the many exceptions to this rule.

Compare the above with:

```
np.diff(A, axis=0)
## array([[-0.2, -0.4, 0. , 0.3],
## [ 0.8, 0.6, -0.2, -0.6]])
```

which gives the iterated differences for each column separately (along the rows).

If a function in not equipped with the `axis`

argument and – instead – was designed to work
with individual vectors,
we can propagate it over all the rows or columns
by calling **numpy.apply_along_axis**.

For instance, here is another (did you solve the suggested exercise?) way to compute the column z-scores:

```
def standardise(x):
return (x-np.mean(x))/np.std(x)
np.round(np.apply_along_axis(standardise, 0, A), 2)
## array([[-0.39, 0.27, 0.71, -0. ],
## [-0.98, -1.34, 0.71, 1.22],
## [ 1.37, 1.07, -1.41, -1.22]])
```

But, of course, we prefer
`(x-np.mean(x, axis=0))/np.std(x, axis=0)`

.

Note

(*) Matrices are iterable (in the sense of Section 3.4), but in an interesting way. Namely, an iterator traverses through each row in a matrix. Writing:

```
r1, r2, r3 = A # A has 3 rows
```

creates three variables, each representing a separate row
in `A`

, the second of which is:

```
r2
## array([0. , 0.2, 0.4, 0.7])
```

## 8.2. Indexing matrices#

Recall that for unidimensional arrays, we have four possible choices
of indexers (i.e., where performing filtering like `x[i]`

):

scalar (extracts a single element),

slice (selects a regular subsequence, e.g., every second element or the first six items; returns a

*view*of existing data: it does not make an independent copy of the subsetted elements),integer vector (selects elements at given indexes),

logical vector (selects elements that correspond to

`True`

in the indexer).

Matrices are two-dimensional arrays. Subsetting thereof
will require two indexes. We write `A[i, j]`

to select rows given by `i`

and columns given by `j`

.
Both `i`

and `j`

can be one of the four above types,
so we have at least ten different cases to consider
(skipping the symmetric ones).

Important

Generally:

each scalar index reduces the dimensionality of the subsetted object by 1;

slice-slice and slice-scalar indexing returns a

*view*of the existing array, so we need to be careful when modifying the resulting object;usually, indexing returns a submatrix (subblock), which is a combination of elements at given rows and columns;

indexing with two integer or logical vectors at the same time should be avoided.

Let us look at all the possible scenarios in greater detail.

### 8.2.1. Slice-based indexing#

Our favourite example matrix again:

```
A = np.array([
[0.2, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4],
[0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.7],
[0.8, 0.8, 0.2, 0.1]
])
```

Indexing based on two slices selects a submatrix:

```
A[::2, 3:] # every second row, skip the first three columns
## array([[0.4],
## [0.1]])
```

An empty slice selects all elements on the corresponding axis:

```
A[:, ::-1] # all rows, reversed columns
## array([[0.4, 0.4, 0.6, 0.2],
## [0.7, 0.4, 0.2, 0. ],
## [0.1, 0.2, 0.8, 0.8]])
```

Let us stress that the result is *always* a matrix.

### 8.2.2. Scalar-based indexing#

Indexing by a scalar selects a given row or column, reducing the dimensionality of the output object:

```
A[:, 3]
## array([0.4, 0.7, 0.1])
```

It selected the fourth column and gives a flat vector
(we can always use the **reshape** method to
convert the resulting object back to a matrix).

Furthermore:

```
A[0, -1]
## 0.4
```

It yielded the element (scalar) in the first row and the last column.

### 8.2.3. Mixed logical/integer vector and scalar/slice indexers#

A logical and integer vector-like object can also be used for element selection. If the other indexer is a slice or a scalar, the result is quite predictable. For instance:

```
A[ [0, -1, 0], ::-1 ]
## array([[0.4, 0.4, 0.6, 0.2],
## [0.1, 0.2, 0.8, 0.8],
## [0.4, 0.4, 0.6, 0.2]])
```

It selected the first, the last, and the first row again and reverses the order of columns.

```
A[ A[:, 0] > 0.1, : ]
## array([[0.2, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4],
## [0.8, 0.8, 0.2, 0.1]])
```

It chose the rows from `A`

where the values in the first column of `A`

are greater than 0.1.

```
A[np.mean(A, axis=1) > 0.35, : ]
## array([[0.2, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4],
## [0.8, 0.8, 0.2, 0.1]])
```

It fetched the rows whose mean is greater than 0.35.

```
A[np.argsort(A[:, 0]), : ]
## array([[0. , 0.2, 0.4, 0.7],
## [0.2, 0.6, 0.4, 0.4],
## [0.8, 0.8, 0.2, 0.1]])
```

It ordered the matrix with respect to the values in the first column (all rows permuted in the same way, together).

In the
`nhanes_adult_female_bmx_2020`

dataset,
select all the participants whose heights are within their
mean ± 2 standard deviations.

### 8.2.4. Two vectors as indexers (*)#

With two vectors (logical or integer) things are a tad more
horrible, as in this case not only some
form of *shape broadcasting* comes into play
but also all the headache-inducing exceptions
listed in the perhaps not the most clearly written
Advanced Indexing
section of the **numpy** manual.
Cheer up, though: things in **pandas** are much worse;
see Section 10.5.

For the sake of our maintaining sanity, in practice, it is best to be extra careful when using two vector indexers and stick only to the scenarios discussed below.

For two flat integer indexers, we pick elementwisely:

```
A[ [0, -1, 0, 2, 0], [1, 2, 0, 2, 1] ]
## array([0.6, 0.2, 0.2, 0.2, 0.6])
```

It yielded `A[0, 1]`

, `A[-1, 2]`

, `A[0, 0]`

, `A[2, 2]`

, and `A[0, 1]`

.

To select a submatrix using integer indexes, it is best to make sure that the first indexer is a column vector, and the second one is a row vector (or some objects like these, e.g., compatible lists of lists).

```
A[ [[0], [-1]], [[1, 3]] ] # column vector-like list, row vector-like list
## array([[0.6, 0.4],
## [0.8, 0.1]])
```

Further, if indexing involves logical vectors,
it is best to convert them to integer ones first
(e.g., by calling **numpy.flatnonzero**).

```
A[ np.flatnonzero(np.mean(A, axis=1) > 0.35).reshape(-1, 1), [[0, 2, 3, 0]] ]
## array([[0.2, 0.4, 0.4, 0.2],
## [0.8, 0.2, 0.1, 0.8]])
```

The necessary reshaping can be done automatically with the
**numpy.ix_** function:

```
A[ np.ix_( np.mean(A, axis=1) > 0.35, [0, 2, 3, 0] ) ] # np.ix_(rows, cols)
## array([[0.2, 0.4, 0.4, 0.2],
## [0.8, 0.2, 0.1, 0.8]])
```

Alternatively, we can always apply indexing twice instead:

```
A[np.mean(A, axis=1) > 0.45, :][:, [0, 2, 3, 0]]
## array([[0.8, 0.2, 0.1, 0.8]])
```

This is only a mild inconvenience.
We will be forced to apply such double indexing anyway in
**pandas** whenever selecting rows *by position* and columns
*by name* is required; see Section 10.5.

### 8.2.5. Views of existing arrays (*)#

Only the indexing involving two slices or a slice and a scalar returns a view on an existing array. For example:

```
B = A[:, ::2]
B
## array([[0.2, 0.4],
## [0. , 0.4],
## [0.8, 0.2]])
```

Now `B`

and `A`

share memory. By modifying `B`

in place, e.g.:

```
B *= -1
```

the changes will be visible in `A`

as well:

```
A
## array([[-0.2, 0.6, -0.4, 0.4],
## [-0. , 0.2, -0.4, 0.7],
## [-0.8, 0.8, -0.2, 0.1]])
```

This is time and memory efficient, but might lead to some unexpected results if we are being rather absent-minded. We have been warned.

### 8.2.6. Adding and modifying rows and columns#

With slice/scalar-based indexers, rows/columns/individual elements can be replaced by new content in a natural way:

```
A[:, 0] = A[:, 0]**2
```

With **numpy** arrays, however, brand new rows or columns cannot
be added via the index operator. Instead, the whole array needs to
be created from scratch using, e.g., one
of the functions discussed in Section 7.1.4.
For example:

```
A = np.column_stack((A, np.sqrt(A[:, 0])))
A
## array([[ 0.04, 0.6 , -0.4 , 0.4 , 0.2 ],
## [ 0. , 0.2 , -0.4 , 0.7 , 0. ],
## [ 0.64, 0.8 , -0.2 , 0.1 , 0.8 ]])
```

## 8.3. Matrix multiplication, dot products, and the Euclidean norm#

Matrix algebra is at the core of all the methods used in data analysis with the matrix multiply being the most fundamental operation therein (e.g., [20, 39]).

Given \(\mathbf{A}\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times p}\)
and \(\mathbf{B}\in\mathbb{R}^{p\times m}\), their *multiply* is a matrix
\(\mathbf{C}=\mathbf{A}\mathbf{B}\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times m}\)
such that \(c_{i,j}\) is the sum of the \(i\)-th row in \(\mathbf{A}\)
and the \(j\)-th column in \(\mathbf{B}\) multiplied elementwisely:

for \(i=1,\dots,n\) and \(j=1,\dots,m\). For example:

```
A = np.array([
[1, 0, 1],
[2, 2, 1],
[3, 2, 0],
[1, 2, 3],
[0, 0, 1],
])
B = np.array([
[1, 0, 0, 0],
[0, 4, 1, 3],
[2, 0, 3, 1],
])
```

And now:

```
C = A @ B # or: A.dot(B)
C
## array([[ 3, 0, 3, 1],
## [ 4, 8, 5, 7],
## [ 3, 8, 2, 6],
## [ 7, 8, 11, 9],
## [ 2, 0, 3, 1]])
```

Mathematically, we can denote the above with:

For example, the element in the fourth row and the third column, \(c_{4,3}\) takes the fourth row in the left matrix \(\mathbf{a}_{4,\cdot}=[1\ 2\ 3]\) and the third column in the right matrix \(\mathbf{b}_{\cdot,3}=[0\ 1\ 3]^T\) (they are marked in bold), multiplies the corresponding elements and computes their sum, i.e., \(c_{4,3}=1\cdot 0 + 2\cdot 1 + 3\cdot 3 = 11\).

Important

Matrix multiplication can only be performed on two
matrices of *compatible sizes*: the number of columns in the left matrix
must match the number of rows in the right operand.

Another example:

```
A = np.array([
[1, 2],
[3, 4]
])
I = np.array([ # np.eye(2)
[1, 0],
[0, 1]
])
A @ I # or A.dot(I)
## array([[1, 2],
## [3, 4]])
```

We matrix-multiplied \(\mathbf{A}\) by the identity matrix \(\mathbf{I}\), which is the neutral element of the said operation. This is why the result is identical to \(\mathbf{A}\).

Important

In most textbooks, just like in this one,
\(\mathbf{A}\mathbf{B}\) always denotes the *matrix* multiplication.
This is a very different operation from the *elementwise* multiplication.

Compare the above to:

```
A * I # elementwise multiplication (the Hadamard product)
## array([[1, 0],
## [0, 4]])
```

(*) Show that \((\mathbf{A}\mathbf{B})^T=\mathbf{B}^T \mathbf{A}^T\). Also notice that, typically, matrix multiplication is not commutative.

Note

By definition, matrix multiplication gives a convenient means for denoting sums of products of corresponding elements in many pairs of vectors, which we refer to as dot products.

Given two vectors \(\boldsymbol{x}, \boldsymbol{y} \in \mathbb{R}^p\),
their *dot (or scalar) product* is given by:

In matrix multiplication terms, if \(\mathbf{x}\) is a row vector and \(\mathbf{y}^T\) is a column vector, then the above can be written as \(\mathbf{x} \mathbf{y}^T\). The result is a single number.

In particular, a dot product of a vector and itself:

is the square of the Euclidean norm of \(\boldsymbol{x}\),
which is used to measure the *magnitude* of a vector
(Section 5.3.2.3):

It is worth pointing out that the Euclidean norm fulfils (amongst others) the condition that \(\|\boldsymbol{x}\|=0\) if and only if \(\boldsymbol{x}=\mathbf{0}=(0,0,\dots,0)\). The same naturally holds for its square.

Show that \(\mathbf{A}^T \mathbf{A}\) gives the matrix that consists of the dot products of all the pairs of columns in \(\mathbf{A}\) and \(\mathbf{A} \mathbf{A}^T\) stores the dot products of all the pairs of rows.

Section 9.3.2 will note that matrix multiplication can be used as a way to express certain geometrical transformations of points in a dataset, e.g., scaling and rotating.

Also, Section 9.3.3 briefly discusses the concept of the inverse of a matrix. Furthermore, Section 9.3.4 introduces its singular value decomposition.

## 8.5. Exercises#

Does **numpy.mean****(A, axis=0)**
compute rowwise or columnwise means?

How does shape broadcasting work? List the most common pairs of shape cases when performing arithmetic operations like addition or multiplication.

What are the possible matrix indexing schemes and how do they behave?

Which kinds of matrix indexers return a *view* of an existing array?

(*) How can we select a submatrix comprised of the first and the last row and the first and the last column?

Why appropriate data preprocessing is required when computing the Euclidean distance between points?

What is the relationship between the dot product, the Euclidean norm, and the Euclidean distance?

What is a centroid? How is it defined by means of the Euclidean distance between the points in a dataset?

What is the difference between the fixed-radius and few nearest-neighbours search?

(*) When \(K\)-d trees or other spatial search data structures might
be better than a brute-force search with
**scipy.spatial.distance.cdist**?